Human Trafficking: First Responders in Health Care

Main Article Content

Elizabeth Peffer Talbot
Yumi E. Suzuki

Keywords

human trafficking, health care, COVID-19, Faith

Abstract

This article addresses the problems first responders encounter when attempting to identify and rescue survivors of human trafficking. Research indicates that 87.8% of women who escape captivity report they saw a health care provider at least once during captivity. This makes health care providers a critical first responder partner. First responders include law enforcement officers, health care providers, school nurses, and faith-based organizations. Health care workers are most likely to encounter survivors while in captivity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between health care workers and law enforcement provide increased opportunities to share knowledge and recognize signs of human trafficking in patients. Theoretical paradigms have been used to analyze and anticipate changes in criminal activity and identify victims. Multi-disciplinary teams have developed a check-list of behaviors typical of captives and a questionnaire that illuminates captivity. The article further comments on the reported impact of COVID 19 on the health care’s system ability to recognize victims. It presents the many contributions of school nurses and the faith community to the first responder movement.


 


 


 


 

Abstract 59 |

References

References
Ahn, R., Alpert, E.J., Purcell, G., Konstantopoulos, W.M., McGahan, A., Caferty, E., Eckardt,
M., Conn, K.L., Cappetta, K., & Burke, T.F. (2003). Human trafficking: Review of
educational resources for health professionals. American Journal of Preventive Medicine,
44 (3), 283-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.10.025

Bales, K., & Soodalater, R. (2010). The slave next door. University of California Press.

Cwikel, J., & Hoban, E. (2005). Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in
the sex industry: Study design, ethics, and methodology. Journal of Sex Research, 42 (4),
306-316. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490509552286

Dean, E. (2013). Staff should take opportunities to identify and help trafficking victims. Emergency Nurse, 21 (2), 7. https://doi.org/10.7748/en2013.05.21.2.7.s10

de Chesnay, M. (2013). Sex trafficking as a new pandemic. In M. de Chesnay (Ed), Sex
trafficking: A clinical guide for nurses (pp. 3-22). Springer.

de Chesnay, M., Szekes, L. (2013). Pregnancy & termination of pregnancy. In M. de Chesnay
(Ed), Sex trafficking: A clinical guide for nurses (pp. 191-202). Springer.

de Chesnay, M., Chalk-Gaynor, C., Emmons, J., Peoples, E., & Williams, C. (2013). First- person accounts of illness & injuries sustained while trafficked. In M. de Chesnay (Ed), Sex trafficking: A clinical guide for nurses (pp. 131-150). Springer.

Dovydaitis, T. (2010). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of
Midwifery & Women’s Health, 55 (5), 462-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.12.017.

Financial Action Task Force – Asia/Pacific Group. (2018). Financial flows from human
trafficking. www.fatf-gafi.org/publications/methodandtreands/documents/human-
trafficking.html

Gajic-Veljanoski, O., & Stewart, D.E. (2007). Women trafficked into prostitution: Determinants, human rights & health needs. Transcultural Psychiatry, 44, 338-358. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461507081635

Gallagher, A. (2006). Recent legal developments in the field of human trafficking: A critical
review of the 2005 European convention and related instruments. European Journal of Migration & Law, 8 (2), 163-189.

Hemmings, S., Jakobowitz, S., Abas, M., Bick, D., Howard, L.M., Stanley, N., Zimmerman, C.,
& Oram, S. (2016). Responding to the health needs of survivors of human trafficking: A
systematic review. BMC Health Service Research. Article 320. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1538-8

Hoerrner, M. (2013). Working with law enforcement. In M. de Chesnay (Ed), Sex trafficking: A
clinical guide for nurses (pp. 63-72). Springer.

Kim, H.W., Park, T., Quiring, S., & Barrett, D. (2018). The anti-human trafficking collaboration
model and serving victims: Providers’ perspectives on the impact and experience. Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work, 15 (2), 185-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/23761407.2018.1432433

Koegler, E., Preble, K.M., & Tlapek, S.M. (2020). Identifying service needs and service gaps for
sexually exploited/trafficked persons in Missouri. Journal of Social Work. Advance
online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468017320919377

McCabe, K.A. (2010). Sex trafficking in the United States. In K.A. McCabe & S. Manian (Eds),
Sex trafficking in a global perspective (pp. 147-158). Rowman & Littlefield.

McClain, N.M., & Garrity, S.E. (2011). Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 40 (2), 243-252.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01221.x

Moynihan, B.A. (2006). The high cost of human trafficking. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2
(2), 100-101. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-3938.2006.tb00067.x
Muftic, L.R., & Finn, M.A. (2013). Health outcomes among women trafficked for sex in the
United States: A closer look. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28 (9), 1859-1885.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260512469102

National Human Trafficking Training and Technical Assistance Center. (January, 2018). Adult
human trafficking screening tool and guide. Administration for Children & Families on
Human Trafficking in Persons.

Okech, D., Choi, Y.J., Elkins, J., & Burns, A.C. (2018). Seventeen years of human trafficking
research in social work: A review of the literature. Journal of Evidence-informed Social
Work, 15 (2), 102-121. https://doi.org/10.1080/23761407.2017.1415177

Peters, K. (2013). The growing business of human trafficking and the power of emergency
nurses to stop it. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 39 (3), 280-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2012.03.017

Polaris Project. (2020, April). Crisis in human trafficking during the pandemic: A snapshot.
https://polarisproject.org/resources/crisis-in-human-trafficking-during-the-
pandemic.

Polaris Project. (2015, May). Sex trafficking in the U.S.: A closer look at U.S. citizen victims.
https://polarisproject.org.wp-content/uploads/2019/09/us-citizen-sex-trafficking.pdf

Powell, C., Asbill, M., Brew, S., & Stoklosa, H. (2017). Human trafficking and HIPAA: What
the health care professional needs to know. Journal of Human Trafficking, 4 (2), 105-
113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23322705.2017.1285613

Rivers, R., & Saewyc, E.M. (2012). On “sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.”
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 41 (2), 163-164.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01336.x

Sabella, D. (2011). The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking. American Journal of
Nursing, 111 (2), 28-37. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NAJ.0000394289.55577.b6

Stotts, E., & Ramey, L. (2009). Human trafficking: A call for counselor awareness and action.
Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education, and Development, 48, 36-47.
https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1939.2009.tb00066x

Talbot, E.P. (2010, November 11-14). The contributions of Christians to the human trafficking
movement. [Paper presentation]. North American Association of Christians in Social
Work. 60th Annual Convention, Raleigh-Durham, NC, United States.

Talbot, E.P. (2011, October 20-23). Human trafficking: At-risk populations in rural
communities. [Paper presentation]. North American Association of Christians in Social
Work. 61st Annual Convention, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Tracy, E.E., & Konstantopoulos, W.M. (2012). Human trafficking: A call for heightened
awareness and advocacy by obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 119
(5), 1045-1047. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e31824f9aaa

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (n.d.). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on
trafficking in persons: Preliminary findings and messaging based on rapid stocktaking.
https://www.unodc.org/documents/Advocacy-Section/HTMSS_Thematic_Brief_on_
COVID-19.pdf

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (n.d.). What is human trafficking? https://www.dhs.gov/
blue-campaign/what-human-trafficking

U.S. Department of State. (2020). Trafficking in persons report. https://www.state.gov/
trafficking-in-persons-report-2020/

Weiner, N.A., & Hala, N. (2008). Measuring human trafficking: Lessons from New York City.
Vera Institute of Justice.

Willis, B., Barows, J., & Butrin, J. (2007). Understanding the physical needs of survivors. In B.
Grant & C. Hudlin (Eds.), Hands that heal: International curriculum to train caregivers
of trafficking survivors (pp. 147 – 181). Project Rescue International/Faith Alliance Against Slavery and Trafficking.

Zimmerman, C., Hossain, M., & Watts, C. (2011). Human trafficking and health: A conceptual
model to inform policy, intervention and research. Social Science & Medicine, 73, 327-
335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.05.028